The first spring or earliest mushrooms collected by connoisseurs of quiet hunting appear on European territory in March. Edible, as well as inedible and poisonous mushrooms form their fruiting bodies in the spring almost immediately after the snow mass has disappeared in the forest.
Many species grow on thawed patches and forest edges. In fairness, it should be noted that the types of mushrooms that can be harvested in the early spring are very few, and that is why you need to know which spring mushrooms can be used for food and which varieties can cause severe poisoning.
Edible spring mushrooms
The name of such a spring mushroom, as morel, is known to almost all domestic mushroom pickers, and their collection is carried out not only in forest zones, but also at the edges and the first thawings in the clearing. Nevertheless, edible and tasty enough spring mushrooms can be found even in gardens on personal plots, as well as on walks and cattle pastures.
|View||Latin||Fruiting period||Features of the fruiting body|
|March Hygrophor||Hygrophorus marzuolus||From the last decade of February to the last days of March||A very early season does not allow confusing this species with others, including poisonous mushrooms.|
|Conical morel||Morchella conica||From the first of April to the end of May||Can be confused with a line of poisonous ordinary, with wavy-twisty, shapeless hats|
|Real morel||Morchella esculenta||From the first of April to the end of May||The characteristic appearance does not allow to confuse it with inedible varieties|
|Morel hat||Mitrophora semilibera||From the first decade of March to the last days of May||Fruit bodies do not tolerate low humidity and often dry quickly on the vine|
|Veal Saucer||Disciotis venosa||From the first decade of March to the last days of May||The presence of a specific aroma does not allow confusing the view with other types of mushrooms.|
|Deer mushroom||Pluteus cervinus||Between early spring and fall||Fruit bodies of poor quality, with mediocre taste characteristics|
|Summer honey mushrooms||Kuehneromyces mutabilis||Between early spring and fall||Fruit bodies can be confused with dangerous counterparts, which differ in bright yellow, rusty red and gray-greenish coloring of hats. Legs above the ring are smooth, below are scaly|
|Short-legged melanoleuka||Melanoleuca brevipes||Spring and summer||Possesses a short, dense, gray leg, tuberoid-thickened at the base|
|Black and white melanoleuka||Melanoleuca cognata||The whole spring-summer period||It is best to assemble hats that can be boiled or fried, and the legs are of a fiber-rubber type, almost inedible|
|Crowded rowing||Lyophyllum decastes||Between early spring and fall||Fruiting in large groups, with fusion of the bases and sides of the legs|
|Entoloma Sepium||Entoloma saepium||From mid spring to the first decade of summer||Fruit bodies most often grow on the territory of Kazakhstan and in the Western Tien Shan, in the zone of growth of symbiont trees|
|Edible entoloma||Entoloma clypeatum||From mid spring to the first decade of summer||On the territory of the Black Earth region they are used for cooking traditional mushroom dishes, and in the countries of Western Europe it belongs to the best mushrooms|
|Kalotsibe May||Calocybe gambosa||From mid spring to the first decade of summer||Crowded growth during maturation causes deformation of the hat|
|Two-ring champignon||Agaricus bitorquis||From the first of May to the autumn period||Excellent edible mushroom, the fruiting bodies of which are grown in large quantities|
|Cone||Verpa conica||From the last decade of spring to June||Fruit bodies are a bit like fruit bodies of an edible morel cap, but do not have longitudinal ribbing on the hat|
Fancy Spring Mushrooms
Mushrooms quite unusual in appearance are often found in the forest expanses of our country. After the snow melts, you can observe the appearance of charming bright red cups growing on decaying wood or fallen branches. These beautiful mushrooms, reminiscent of the appearance of goblets with curved edges, are called Sarkoscif. Despite the fact that this species is classified as edible, the red young and old fruiting bodies of the sarcoscifes are completely tasteless and “rubbery,” therefore they are not used for food purposes.
What mushrooms cannot be harvested in spring
There are a number of varieties of spring mushrooms, the collection of which is impractical or even dangerous. There are not too many such species, however, you need to know them so as not to get poisoned.
|View||Latin||Fruiting period||Features of the fruiting body|
|Spring line||Gyromitra esculenta||From the first decade of March to May||The nature of the toxins contained in the fruit bodies of the lines of this species is not yet fully understood.|
|Etoloma Nifoids||Entoloma niphoides||From early spring to autumn cooling||The species is very poisonous and is often confused with edible May mushroom.|
|Tinder funnel sulfur yellow||Laetiporus sulphureus||From early spring to autumn cooling||Parasitic fruiting bodies are similar to a teardrop-shaped yellowish fleshy mass of intense yellow or orange color|
|Tinder fungus||Polyporus squamosus||From the first decade of April to mid-June||Due to the specific appearance, it is impossible to confuse with other types of mushrooms|
|Fiberwoman of Patuillard||Inocybe erubescens||Throughout spring and summer||Deadly poisonous mushroom with a pleasant mushroom aroma and unpleasant taste.|
|White fly agaric||Amanita verna||From early spring to autumn cooling||The fruit bodies contain several toxins, and the lethal dose for an adult is approximately 30 g|
What to cook from spring mushrooms
Spring marsupial mushroom is amazingly tasty, and dishes from it often outperform porcini mushrooms in terms of taste. Almost any spring mushroom is perfect for making soups, as well as hot dishes and cold snacks. However, such mushrooms are not always suitable for canning, as they do not have the proper taste and have a not too dense structure.
Nevertheless, there are a number of edible species, the use of which can cause great disappointment and it is not recommended to cook dishes from them:
- bubbly pepper or Peziza vesiculosa and tuberous sclerotinia or Dumontiona tuberosa - edible species with not too tasty and nutritious pulp;
- early agrocybe or Agrocybe praecox - an edible species whose old fruiting bodies acquire a very pronounced bitter taste;
- Paxina acetabulum or paxina acetabulum, which grows in rare forest areas and along paths, has a rubbery and unpleasant taste.
How to cook a casserole from the lines (video)
Among other things, it should be noted that it is impossible to eat mushroom dishes from the fruit bodies of an ink dung (coprinus atramentarius) and flickering dung (coprinus micaceus) during feasts with alcohol, as this can cause severe poisoning. Spring mushrooms for the most part are very tasty and healthy, but they must be collected very carefully, in compliance with all the rules and norms of quiet hunting.