Phacelia (Phacelia) belongs to the genus of plants from the Boraginaceae family. The genus includes slightly less than two hundred species represented by annual and perennial herbaceous plants. Phacelia is very popular among domestic gardeners and is increasingly used in home gardening of most regions of our country.
A significant part of the phacelia species is grown as ornamental plants, siderata and honey plants. Phacelia can be grown as an annual or perennial herb and has a branched stem part. As a rule, the stem part is erect and bristly-hairy. The height of an adult plant, depending on the species, can vary from 20 cm to a meter.
Foliage in phacelia is whole-edge, can be represented by opposite or alternate leaves. The presence of a fairly short pedicel is characteristic. The flowers have white, purple, blue, azure or yellow color. The phase of the main flowering of the plant falls on the period from June to mid-September. The duration and time of flowering may vary depending on species and varietal characteristics.
The main types
Many types of phacelia are in demand as a siderat plant or have pronounced properties of a honey plant. In the conditions of home gardening in our country, the following types of phacelia are most often cultivated.
|Russian name||Latin name||Description||The properties|
|Phacelia twisted||Phacelia congesta||It has very small flowers collected in crowded inflorescences, and located on the apical part of the stems. The height of the shoots does not exceed 0.5 m. The leaves are light green, abundantly pubescent.||A long flowering period, lasting from the first decade of summer until the onset of autumn cooling.|
|Phacelia bell||Phacelia campanularia||A stunted annual with a height of not more than 20-25 cm with erect, reddish stains, juicy, but fairly brittle shoots. The foliage is alternate, petiolate, slightly lobed, bluish-green staining. Bell-shaped flowers, collected ten or twelve pieces in one-sided or racemose inflorescences.||Abundant flowering and mid-June for a month and a half. Seeds collected from plants are able to maintain germination for several years. It is characterized by abundant self-seeding.|
|Phacelia Purche||Phacelia purshii||This species has soft leaves with strong pubescence, located on shoots up to 45-55 cm high. Flowers are small in size.||A beautifully flowering, but rather tender species, grown by direct sowing or through seedlings.|
|Phacelia tansy||Phacelia tanacetifolia||No more than a meter high, with two dozen large lateral branches on which the second-order stems and the next, cirrus-dissected type of leaves are located. Flowers of small sizes, regular in shape, collected in inflorescences-curls.||Unpretentious and undemanding to the soil composition, cold-resistant and drought-resistant species with abundant and long flowering.|
Purpose of sowing
A distinctive feature of phacelia from other types of siderates is the external attractiveness and decorativeness. The plant is characterized by rapid growth and endurance to low temperature conditions. An active and fast growth rate of phacelia allows the plant to be used as an intermediate precursor or as the main siderat plant.
As a result of sowing phacelia in the winter, in the spring it is possible to get about 25-27 kg of greenery from a plot of square meter, which can be equated in value to 25 kg of rotted manure. At the stage of decomposition of the green mass of the plant, a significant amount of nitrogen is released. In areas represented by poor nutritionally deficient soils, phacelia is grown in the spring and autumn.
In order to improve the structure of the soil and to increase the soil fertility in the area, it is recommended to regularly plant a green manure, both in spring and autumn, for three years. Mowing the siderat planting and digging the soil is necessary before the flowering phase. Last time you need to sow Phacelia in the last decade of November, without mowing the plants. Thus, it is possible to obtain a significant green mass that can protect the soil, both from freezing, and from drying out or excessive accumulation of moisture.
Phacelia after decomposition in the soil is a light, quickly digestible and highly effective fertilizer, which is enriched with all the necessary elements and minerals necessary to improve the quality of the soil.
Rules and time of landing
Recently, in conditions of home gardening, tansy tansy has been increasingly grown, which is unpretentious and grows well on any type of soil, including rocky and sandy loam. This green manure has sufficient cold resistance, so it can be planted even in early spring, immediately after thawing the soil. In addition, the fact that green manure is drought tolerant but does not tolerate excessive moisture should be considered. All types of phacelia are not affected by diseases or plant parasites., and the amount of useful green mass is very high even in areas of risky farming.
Sowing Phacelia is carried out almost at any time, from the early spring to late autumn. but The best sowing dates are considered to be the period from June to the last decade of July. To sow a plot of 50-70 m2 it is necessary to spend about 100-120 g of seeds. When sowing, the optimal depth of the seed material is one and a half centimeters. Under favorable conditions, mass seedlings of sideral culture appear after about a week and a half. Phacelia grows rapidly and branches very well, making significant green mass easy to grow.
As a winter lateral plant, Phacelia is preferably planted not only in open areas and ridges of open ground, but also in greenhouse constructions or stationary greenhouses. In mixed planting conditions, plants can be planted immediately after harvest, which allows you to prepare the soil well for the next growing season of garden crops, and also makes the soil in the area loose and fertile. It was also noted that the cultivation of phacelia allows one to normalize the soil reaction, and contributes to a very active displacement of weeds from the ridges, which prefers acidic soils, including wood lice, which is widespread in home gardening.
Reviews of summer residents
According to experienced gardeners, sowing phacelia is a fairly easy and convenient way to provide the soil with good nutrition. Phacelia has a well-developed root system that perfectly loosens the topsoil and saturates heavy soils with air. According to gardeners, even a single sowing of this green manure on the plot has a noticeable positive effect on the quality and quantity of the crop.
Among other things, numerous observations of summer residents prove the deoxidizing effect of growing Phacelia siderate and getting soil with an acid level closer to neutral indicators. At the stage of active flowering, phacelia is attractive to pollinating insects., as well as the natural enemies of the leaf moth, apple flower beetle and the fruit stalk.
With the right technology for growing phacelia, it can protect garden plantings from wireworms, locusts and nematodes, and also prevents the defeat of viral and bacterial infections, including late blight and rot. Experienced gardeners recommend using the culture in joint plantings with legumes, which will protect garden plants from aphids, weevils and grains.
Phacelia: How to Sow
Thus, Phacelia can be attributed to very valuable sideral crops, which can improve soil fertility in a short time, and also reduces the number of chemicals used to prevent diseases and pests.