Breeding quails at home is a fascinating and very useful activity that does not require a lot of time and effort. Quail can be bred at home, in the apartment and even in the country. The correct content of quail is available even for beginner poultry farmers, but the cultivation must necessarily be carried out in accordance with the established technology.
Pros and cons of growing quail as a business
Quail - birds are amazing, so the potential for their breeding at home is very high. Keeping a quail at home is very cost effective. As practice shows, to breed quails on a small or medium scale is just as profitable as on a large one. For the purchase of livestock and cages, as well as for feed, heating and heating, the starting costs will slightly exceed 100-150 thousand.
Invested funds are returned about six months, after which the poultry breeder begins to receive a steady profit. Significantly reduce costs if you build a cell system yourself, as well as automate the line for feeding and drinking poultry. In a room with an area of 37-38 m3 can accommodate about a thousand quails. Meat and quail eggs are sold. One female will lay about 270-280 eggs per year. The rejected bird goes for meat. Among other things, it’s very profitable to sell live birds of different ages.
Breeding quails at home for beginners
Even beginner poultry breeders can take care of quails. Proper care consists in observing the diet and feeding regimen, timely cleaning and prevention of poultry diseases. Particular attention should be paid to maintaining an optimal microclimate and a competent choice of breed.
To date, in order to obtain meat products, it is most beneficial to keep the following poultry breeds:
- Texas white or American albino.
Like any broiler, meat breeds are characterized by insufficient egg production, but the meat yield can vary within 270-370 g or more.
The content of egg breeds is also very beneficial, due to the high rates of egg production. The bird begins to lay eggs in two months. The most popular egg breeds:
- Japanese quail;
- English black quail;
- Estonian quail;
- Manchurian gold.
The breeds are unpretentious in content, and with balanced nutrition and quality care, egg production is 260 or more eggs per year.
Particular attention is paid to quail breeders by the so-called hybrid, meat and egg breeds. Their breeding allows you to successfully combine getting a good quality meat and a sufficient number of eggs. Tuxedo breed and "NPO" are not picky about food and unpretentious to the conditions of detention. The complex is resistant to diseases, which makes such a bird very popular in domestic breeding.
Varieties of quail
Conditions of detention
In accordance with established sanitary standards, poultry houses intended for the industrial maintenance of quail must be located no closer than 300 m from the apartment building. The number of birds in the cage may vary, but you need to remember about the norm of the floor area per one individual.
When keeping a small number of quails in a residential building, you need to remember about hygiene requirements, and conduct two-time daily cleaning of bird droppings. It is not recommended to keep the bird on a loggia or balcony, in conditions of strong fluctuations in the daily temperature. Individuals of different ages should not be kept together. For each male, there should be three to four females.
The best egg production of quail is observed when kept in compact cells with a mesh floor with cells of 15 × 15 mm. Cells must be reliable, without the presence of large gaps and sharp, traumatic parts. The tight content negatively affects egg production and weight gain. Too loose fit - wasteful use of floor space. The standard optimal cell height should be 20-25 cm.
For each square meter of cage, approximately 60-70 goals can be placedand a five-tier block allows you to place up to 350 goals. The lower cage needs to be placed at a height of 35 cm from the floor surface, so the height of the four-tier block is one and a half meters, and the five-tier block is about 180 cm, which should be taken into account when choosing and arranging a room for the house. The cost of such factory-made batteries is pretty high, and standard cages can be purchased at affordable prices from amateur poultry farmers.
Heating and humidity
Especially important is the comfortable temperature in the quail in winter. Most often, in order to create the optimal microclimate various heating systems and heaters are used. Relative humidity in the house should be approximately 50-70%. The presence of a tousled and brittle plumage, rapid breathing, an open beak, and a decrease in egg laying indicate a low humidity.
It is very important to create the right lighting. For egg breeds, seventeen-hour daylight is best. Allowed to use round-the-clock lighting. In this case, the number of eggs increases, but the females develop their potential much faster. To illuminate an area of 4 × 4 meters, it is enough to use one incandescent lamp with a power of 40 watts.
Meat breeds need a proper diet, which allows them to gain mass intensively. The feed should contain the entire vitamin complex, mineral supplements and herbs. The resulting meat belongs to the category of dietary products, practically does not contain cholesterol and is characterized by low calorie content.
Quail feed should contain a minimum amount of rye and salt. The following daily ration is considered optimal:
- wheat - 30%;
- fishmeal - 15%;
- Makukha - 15%;
- corn - 25%;
- shell milling - 5%;
- barley - 5%.
Be sure to include vitamin supplements or feed such as finely chopped carrots, herbs and cabbage in the daily diet of the bird.
How to contain quails
Quail diseases are divided into infectious diseases and non-contagious, caused by errors in care or feeding. Failure to comply with the rules of feeding causes the emergence of a number of concomitant diseases, so you need to make sure that the feed is of good quality and the correct composition. In case of an overdose of vitamin-mineral supplements, the bird may die. In case of a violation of the diet, the following can be observed:
- prolapse of the oviduct with the egg;
- vitamin deficiencies and hypovitaminosis;
- disturbances in the formation of an egg shell.
The main conditions for the correct maintenance of adult quail is the absence of drafts and temperature indicators of air above 16-17ºC. Young growth needs to be kept indoors with a temperature of 22-24ºC. Failure to comply with the norms of bird landing, excessive lighting, placement in direct sunlight can cause biting or cannibalism, as well as alopecia, accompanied by a massive loss of feathers. The main symptoms of diseases can be lethargy and passivity, drowsiness of the bird and a complete rejection of food. In this case, quailing is best quarantined. Also you need to plant a bird that has been damaged or damaged as a result of fights and biting.
Quail propagation and parenting
Quails do not hatch eggs on their own, so reproduction will require the use of special incubators. To obtain fertilized eggs, no more than three or four females should be planted on each male. It is important to correctly approach the issue of choosing an adult bird for breeding at home. The bird should be vigorous, in the middle weight category without exhaustion and obesity. There should be a clean feather in the cloaca area.
It is also necessary to inspect the quail beak, which should be even and dry. A clean and tidy appearance without pollution is a sign of a good bird. The female must be at least three months old and no more than eight months old. The age of males can vary between 3-6 months. One breed needs to be crossedbut not related blood. Parent stock should be fed as correctly as possible and kept in exceptional cleanliness, which will allow you to get a quality egg. Females can die as a result of a damaged oviduct as a result of very active oviposition. In this case, it is necessary to reduce the duration of daylight hours and reduce the amount of protein in the feed.
For hatching, you can use both simple incubators with manual egg flipping and the most advanced, fully automated models. The bookmark uses eggs collected no more than a week ago. After laying for incubation, the young growth appears on about the seventeenth day. The brood must be put in a brooder. It should be remembered that, subject to breeding technology, hatching eggs and hatched chicks are minimal.
How to care for quail in winter
Significant efforts are not required to keep at home already adult individuals and young animals. The main condition for maintenance in the winter is the use of a warm room with no drafts and dampness. The temperature indicators of indoor air in winter should not fall below 16 ° C.
Young individuals have the most dense downy layer, therefore it is warmer than adult quails and there is no increased metabolism, which should be reflected in the diet of the feed base. In too severe winters with severe frosts, an additional amount of protein and fat, in the form of vegetable oil, must be added to the feed. High-quality and energetically valuable nutrition makes it possible for quails to tolerate even low-temperature conditions.
Of particular importance in the winter is lighting. If there are no windows in the room, the livestock must be provided with high-quality artificial lighting. To maintain the most comfortable conditions allow special lamps for heating, which are most often used infrared lighting devices. Such lamps not only effectively heat the bird, but also create a dim light, which prevents bends and fights. When using conventional incandescent lamps, it is necessary to provide lighting at the rate of about 4 watts per square meter of area. It is recommended to place lamps above feeders and drinking bowls. In the bird recreation area, it is allowed to create a light twilight.
How to make do-it-yourself quail cages
The miniature size and absolute unpretentiousness in care allowed to make the cultivation of quail available not only in a private courtyard, but even in a city apartment. The cost of feed and equipment when growing such a bird is minimal, and the income exceeds even the wildest expectations of beginning quail breeders.