European cyclamens, popular at home, look like Persian cyclamen, but there are some characteristic botanical differences, as well as minor differences in care and growing technology.
Botanical description of European cyclamens
One of the varieties of alpine violets, often grown in indoor floriculture. The appearance of the aerial part is represented by round-heart-shaped leaves. The upper part of the leaves is dark green. Lower leaf plate of characteristic magenta staining. Flowering is very decorative. White, red or pink flowers.
Under the name "European cyclamens", three types of cyclamens that grow in the European part enter the points of sale. These include the purple species (C.purpurascens), the notched species (C.repandum), and the ivy species (C. hederifolium). Almost all three varieties do not have significant external differences.
What is the difference between European cyclamen and Persian
In the flower shops of our country, Persian varieties are much more common than cyclamen purple. These two most popular species differ in their biological characteristics., therefore, require an individual approach to care problems. Among other things, in order to ensure proper room culture for decorative culture, you will need to know the main differences between Persian cyclamen and purple cyclamen, so as not to confuse these beautiful flowering perennials upon purchase.
Of course, experienced amateur gardeners quite easily distinguish two species by the size of the flowers, considering that in Persian cyclamen they are much larger and more fragrant. Nevertheless, the abundance of various modern varieties makes this method of determining the species very problematic, therefore, it is recommended to focus on the fact that the Persian cyclamen foliage is much larger and more powerful than that of the European species and is about 40 mm in diameter.
How to grow cyclamen
Through the long-term efforts of domestic and foreign breeders, the most unpretentious varieties of European cyclamen were bred, which, unlike other species, do not need the winter dormancy phase as such, which can greatly simplify, if not all, then very measures for caring for a perennial. It’s important to consider that both species have pronounced medicinal properties, so that the plant can bring full benefits, it will need to provide proper care.
Features of plant care at home
In order to ensure prolonged flowering, in the summer it is desirable for the plant to provide a temperature regime of 17-19 ° C. In winter, the plant needs cooler conditions, and the room temperature should be kept at 14-15 ° C. Despite the fact that the plant is photophilous, on too sunny days, the aboveground part must necessarily be obscured by direct sunlight.
Irrigation measures should be regular, without excessive drying of the soil. Excess water after watering should be removed from the pan. In the autumn and winter, watering should be reduced, but not completely stopped. To feed cyclamens of this species from spring to autumn with a half dose of fertilizers for flowering crops. At the dormant stage, the plant does not need additional nutrition. You need to transplant a decorative culture about once every three years, in the spring, by transferring it to a new flower pot. It is important to remember that cyclamen belongs to the category of toxic crops, and when leaving, especially propagating by tubers, safety measures must be followed.
Medicines based on plant materials of Alpine violets or cyclamen are popular and in high demand. Drugs with juice of a long decorative culture cure rheumatism, sinusitis, sinusitis, diseases of the nasopharynx and many other chronic or acute colds. Violet alpine subgroups is characterized by the following medicinal properties:
- Anti-inflammatory effect;
- Antimicrobial effects;
- Wound healing effect
- Sedative properties;
- Hemostatic effect.
To prepare a healing tincture, twenty grams of fresh and well-chopped tubers need to be placed in a glass container and pour 200 grams of vodka. The alcohol tincture should be infused for about seven to ten days in a cool place, after which it should be taken orally 35-40 drops, three times a day, in diluted form in water. Very effective homemade ointmentmade on the basis of aloe juice, Kalanchoe juice, onion juice, Alpine violet juice and Vishnevsky ointment, mixed in the same proportions.
Any medicines based on indoor perennial should not be used to treat children of preschool and primary school age, as well as pregnant and lactating women.
How to transplant cyclamen
As a rule, a significant part of the problems that accompany the cultivation of decorative perennials are the result of improper care, including overfill, underfill, cultivation in rooms with too dry air or an extremely high temperature regime:
- the appearance of brown spots on the foliage of European cyclamen, yellowing and wilting of the leaves, may be caused by too dry air in the room or too intense lighting of the aerial part. In this case, the decorative perennial must be moved to a shaded place, as well as to increase the air humidity indicators;
- if the plant drops buds at the stage of peduncle laying, it is necessary to transfer the culture to a warmer and more lighted room;
- foliage withers, turns yellow, becomes lethargic if there is a severe overmoistening of the soil, as a result of which the root system rotted. The dug tuber must be carefully inspected and all damaged or decayed parts trimmed;
- Of the pests, the greatest danger to the culture is represented by aphids, thrips and ticks, for the destruction of which the most and most effective, modern chemical type insecticides are used.
If the foliage of European cyclamen turns yellow and falls in preparation for the winter dormancy phase, then no therapeutic measures should be taken, since such a process is natural.
How to grow cyclamen from seeds
According to the observation of experienced gardeners, violets of alpine groups are very difficult to tolerate tobacco smoke, as well as fumes emitted by gas stoves, so a decorative perennial need to provide a comfortable zone for growth and development, and then the plant will thank it with plentiful and beautiful flowering.