Breeding pigs, or pig farming, is not a very difficult and very profitable occupation. It is possible to breed pigs at home both for fattening and for reproduction. Many farmers prefer to keep and grow piglets for sale, which is very profitable and quite affordable even for beginner pig farmers.
Breeding pigs as a business: is it profitable to keep piglets for sale
Pigs, in comparison with other farm animals, have a significant number of advantages that make their breeding profitable and relatively simple:
- high productivity and the build-up of a large volume of meat in the shortest possible time. The weight of the newborn piglet exceeds a kilogram, and after six months - already about 100 kg;
- an omnivorous animal, and use almost any feed of plant and animal origin for food, including food waste;
- pigs have a good breeding rate and high fertility rates, and the correct content allows you to get offspring a couple of times a year for about twelve to fourteen piglets;
- about a third of the substances contained in the feed are completely absorbed by the animal, which positively affects the timing of fattening.
First you need to decide on the ultimate goal of such a business. Pigs can be bred and kept for sale, as well as cultivated exclusively for meat. As a rule, keeping farm animals for sale by piglets is the most convenient and most effective way to make a profit. Raising a piglet for sale is not too difficult, and caring for an adult animal and the technology for producing a pig with a large mass and high quality meat will require not only a competent plan, but also the acquisition of a significant amount of feed.
Choosing the right breed is half the battle.
Another important issue of domestic pig farming is the correct choice of breed of farm animal:
- sebaceous rocks
- meat or bacon breeds;
- meat or universal breeds.
A feature of all sebaceous rocks is cultivation in order to obtain a large yield of high-quality fat. Pork carcass contains approximately 40-45% fat. The breed is characterized by a wide and rough body and a heavy front part. The best greasy breeds: "Ukrainian Steppe", "Berkshire" and "Big Black".
Meat breeds have an increased intensity of muscle mass development and are characterized by rapid growth, therefore, proper intensive fattening allows you to get high slaughter weight already in eight-month-old individuals. The total volume of meat in the carcass is 60-65% or more. The trunk of such an agricultural animal is elongated, with the presence of a shallow chest and a well-developed, massive back. Popular breeds: "English large white", "Estonian bacon", "Temvors", "Vietnamese vis-bellied" I, "Duroc" and "Landras".
Meat breed is considered universal, which is due to the receipt of high-quality meat and soft fat. Even in the conditions of standard fattening, there is a rapid weight gain, with 55-65% of meat and 30-35% of fat.
Almost any breed can be adapted quite easily for keeping at home.
Pig breeding at home for beginners
For home breeding, certain requirements must be observed that are aimed at maintaining the health of agricultural animals and the final receipt of the maximum volume of quality products. Piglets should be selected by weight.
Acquired pigs should be placed for a week in a special quarantine room, allowing to identify a sick animal as early as possible. When growing young animals, the air temperature in the stable should vary between 18-22aboutC at a moisture content of not more than 75-80%. For small piglets, location in rooms with drafts, cold and dampness is contraindicated.
It is necessary to observe cleanliness in the pigsty, and for proper development to provide animals with regular walks in the fresh air. Water needs to be changed as often as possible, and the feeders are cleaned after each feeding. Monthly disinfection and pest disinfection is performed. Piglets under the age of three months should receive food five times a day, and young animals are fed four times a day. Feeding adults is done three times a day.
Pig Feeding Rules
The choice of feed is an important point, so the following factors must be considered:
- pedigree features;
- age features;
- availability of feed base;
- fattening period and expected condition.
For the fastest possible growth, growth stimulants are often used, represented by antibiotics, vitamins and minerals, tissue preparations.
All feeds are divided into the following groups:
- cereals, including rye, peas, barley and millet, as well as succulent and green fodder;
- cereal bran;
- feed, greatly reducing the quality of pork, including soy and meal.
Fattening for meat should begin in three months and finish by the eighth month, when the mass reaches 100-130 kg.
Ventilation and lighting
Pigs need sufficient natural light, which positively affects the biological processes in the body of the animal. In the conditions of a short daylight in winter, artificial lighting is used:
- lactating sow and piglets receive lighting eighteen hours a day at the level of fifteen lux;
- fattening pigs should receive artificial lighting twelve hours a day at the level of five to six lux.
A properly organized pigsty should have a high-quality ventilation system. Air exchange allows you to remove from the room all used and contaminated harmful gases. Ventilation can be used industrial or home-made. It must be remembered that this type of equipment can trigger drafts that are dangerous for both piglets and young animals. The best ventilation and ventilation system has proven itself.
Growing room and walking area
For the construction of walls, it is required to use heat-insulating and non-moisture-resistant materials, which allow to effectively retain heat in the winter. Most often used wood, brick, cinderblock or gas-porous blocks, as well as rubble stone. Interior finishing can be done with plastered wood, followed by whitewashing.
Microclimatic conditions in the pigsty depend on the correct construction of floors. The attic must be insulated. For the equipment of floors, concrete or boards are used. Slit floors make cleaning easier. It is necessary to install internal partitions from strong and durable materials. To make animals freely accessible to the walking areas, it is necessary to arrange manholes with a height of 0.8 m and a width of 0.6 m.
Proper care is not only to maintain hygiene and a balanced diet, but also to comply with the following rules:
- nutrition should be represented by 50-60% of green crops, 10% of succulent feed, 5% of grass meal and animal feed;
- in order to reduce the cost of feed, root crops and crops, it is necessary to grind before distribution;
- breeding according to Canadian technology involves keeping animals on a deep bedding layer;
- The breeding technology includes such measures as cleaning the premises, preparing and distributing feed, examining pigs and carrying out preventive measures.
If pigs are bred for the further sale of piglets, then methods must be used to increase the attention to sow fertility indicators.
How and what to feed pigs (video)
Home breeding technology for pigs
Beginner pig farmers often make mistakes consisting in the incorrect selection of a sow or boar, as well as inept calculation of the time of insemination. The most favorable period for breeding pigs at home is the middle of winter. The gestation period varies between 110-130 days, and the next mating can be done in about six months. The age of the sow must be more than eight months, and body weight not less than 100 kg.
During the hunting period, which lasts a couple of weeks, the animal begins to jump on other pigs, sharply loses its appetite, and also becomes restless. Cleaning in the premises where the sow is kept must be done several times a week. Preference should be given to the largest and most calm individuals who become good parents. It is especially important to provide the sow with high-quality nutrition with a high content of vitamin and mineral complex.
The main methods for identifying and diagnosing diseases of farm animals are several, and All of them should be used in pig breeding:
- constant monitoring of changes in animal behavior;
- compliance with the feeding regimen;
- visual inspection of the body, limbs and head of the animal;
- periodic measurement of body temperature in the rectum;
- pigsty and feces analysis.
The greatest danger is the plague, the causative agent of which can be transmitted with food, water, manure, litter and meat. The main symptoms are fever, cough, constipation or diarrhea, as well as seizures. The disease is incurable.
The main preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of damage to farm animals, are the exclusion of the following negative factors:
- use of spoiled and poor-quality feed;
- overfeeding animals;
- lack of nutrition and a balanced diet;
- low or too high temperature in the pigsty.
It is necessary to minimize the risk of any damage to the animals, as well as the ingestion of pathogenic bacteria, pathogenic viruses and helminth eggs with water or food.
How to keep pigs at home (video)
Growing and fattening pigs with strict adherence to the technology of organizing maintenance and nutrition allows you to get not only good, but also fast results of high growth of farm animals. The result of proper cultivation is both high-quality raw materials and healthy meat products.