The winter pear of the variety Belorusskaya Late was bred by breeders of the Research Institute for Fruit Growing in Belarus. A detailed description is given by the authors of the variety Mikhnevich N. I., Myalik N. G., Kovalenko Yu. K. “Belorusskaya Late” is included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements. Varietal indicators characterize this variety as optimal for Belarus, and allow to grow this pear in the conditions of home gardening in the North-West and Central regions of our country.
A plant of medium growth strength, with a rounded and fairly dense crown. The main shoots depart from the stem of the fruit tree at an almost right angle. Branch growth is upward. The plant bears fruit on both simple and complex chives.
Branches of deer type, medium thickness, light brown, with pubescence and a large number of small lentils. Kidneys of small size, bent type, conical shape, without pubescence. The foliage is small, oblong, elliptical in shape, with finely serrated, wavy edges, located on short and pubescent petioles.
Large and white flowers consist of attractive oval petals.
Fruits of medium size, weighing no more than 125 g, broad, traditionally pear-shaped, with medium uniformity, covered with a dull, rough, with a light brown dotted skin pattern. The main staining at the stage of removable ripeness is green, which gradually becomes orange-yellow. The integumentary staining is brown-red or reddish-raspberry.
White, not too dense pulp has a very delicate, oily and juicy texture. Taste good. The pulp is characterized by a sour-sweet, refreshing taste. Harvesting is carried out in September. Subject to storage technology, the crop is well preserved until mid-spring. It is important to remember that "Belarusian late" refers to the category of partially self-fertile varieties, therefore, to increase productivity, it is recommended to plant also Bere Loshitskaya and Oily Loshitsky. High agricultural technology allows you to get an average yield of 155-165 kg / ha.
Pears: variety selection
Pear seedlings need to be grown in well-lit areas, which will maintain high yields and sugar content in ripened fruits. Pear trees do not tolerate moisture stagnation, therefore, in areas where there is a high risk of flooding of plantations, it is recommended to plant seedlings of fruit crops on artificially created hills or using high-quality drainage. The optimum groundwater level should be at least two meters.
For growing pears, it is advisable to divert areas represented by sandy-chernozem, loamy or sandy soils with a weak acidity level at a pH level of 5.6-6.0. Pear seedlings should not be buried when planting in a permanent place, and the root neck of a young plant should rise about 5-7 cm above the ground. When planting planting material with an open root system, it is required to remove about 90% of the entire foliage. The maximum preservation of the root system allows you to accelerate and improve the survival rates of plants planted in open ground.
The planting scheme of pear seedlings must be selected based on the type and level of stock development. Plants grown on tall rootstocks need a feeding area of at least 20-25 square meters. Seedlings on average stocks of strong growth are planted taking into account a feeding area of 11 square meters.
It is very important to conduct a preliminary digging of the soil in the area allocated for the cultivation of pear plantations. In the process of digging, all weeds and plant debris should be removed from the site, after which landing pits are prepared. Organic fertilizer in the form of horse humus or humus, as well as superphosphate, potassium sulfate or wood ash and ammonium nitrate should be placed in the planting pit.
How to plant a pear
In the first year after planting a pear seedling in a permanent place, it is desirable to remove all the flowers, which will allow the plant to gain strength for subsequent fruiting. Further care for the fruit crop consists of the following activities:
- in the spring, ammonium nitrate is added to the soil at the rate of 15-25 g or urea at the rate of 10-20 g for each square meter of nutritional area;
- in the summer, you can use superphosphate at the rate of 40-60 g and phosphorite flour at the rate of 30-40 g for each square meter of nutrition area for feeding pears;
- in autumn, when preparing fruit plantations for winter, top dressing is carried out with complex fertilizers without the presence of nitrogen-containing components;
- it is recommended to water the pear weekly, spending about one bucket of water for each adult plant;
- the last, water-loading irrigation is advisable to be carried out in the last decade of August, which will prevent growth processes in shoots and minimize the risk of a decrease in winter hardiness of fruit stands.
Despite sufficient winter hardiness, the young pear needs to be protected from severe frosts by mulching the trunk circle with horse humus. It is advisable to wrap the plant stem with covering materials. The main pruning of a pear tree should be carried out annually, in early spring, before buds open.
The best varieties for growing in Belarus
The most promising pear varieties, best for growing in soil and climatic conditions, are characterized by high and regular productivity, high marketable and taste qualities of fruits, sufficient keeping quality and disease resistance, suitability for transportation, and also relative unpretentiousness in leaving and cultivation.
|Petrovskaya||Early ripe crop pear.||Greenish-yellow staining, weighing up to 130-135 g||Cream color, tender and juicy, semi-oily type, sweet and sour||Mid-layer, with a yield of up to 30 kg, comes into fruition for 3-4 years|
|"Cathedral"||An early ripe variety with a decent and stable yield.||Greenish-yellow, with a faint blurry, red side, weighing up to 110-115 g||Sweet and sour, white, medium-dense, tender, semi-oily, with fine grain, juicy||Relatively medium-sized, with high winter hardiness and resistance to scab damage|
|Academic||Mid-season variety with high productivity.||Green staining, weighing up to 240-255 g, with a large pronounced blush||Thick enough, with characteristic pleasant, wine-sweet notes, juicy||The plant is resistant to scab, shows a yield of 50 kg, early fruiting|
|Otradnenskaya||Skoropodny and resistant to scab, mid-season speed-keeping variety.||Greenish stain, attractive, with a red blurred blush on the surface||Yellowish-white, sour-sweet taste, without aroma, not too juicy and dense, with fine grain||A tree with high winter hardiness, productivity within 30-45 kg, comes into fruiting for 3-4 years|
|Potapovskaya||Mid-term ripening.||Yellow, with a pronounced red blush, weighing up to 145-155 g||Delicate and juicy, refreshing, with a sweet and sour, slightly tart taste.||Winter-hardy and resistant to major fungal diseases, comes into fruition in the fifth year|
|"Cosmic"||Harvest variety of medium maturity.||Greenish yellow staining with dark dots, weighing between 100-105 g||White, fine-grained and stony, sweet||High-yielding and winter-hardy tree, with a good level of disease resistance, comes into fruition in the fifth year|
Recommendations and reviews of gardeners
According to domestic gardeners, the pear "Belorusskaya Late" does not tolerate a lack of moisture, a hundred especially pronounced at a young age. With a decrease in the number of fruits by rationing the ovaries, it is possible to increase the mass of fruits and remove the load from the branches, which is especially important in very productive years.
How to prune a pear
Most gardeners describe the Belorussian Late variety as a “workhorse" with high productivity, unpretentiousness, and a long shelf life. The palatability is excellent, with a slightly pronounced acidity, and when fully ripened, the flesh acquires a characteristic oiliness and becomes very tasty. In addition, the advantages include the lack of tallness, which makes it easier to care for fruit plantations, and harvesting.